For prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT), acute and late RT-related genitourinary (GU) toxicities adversely impact disease-specific quality of life. Early warning of potential RT toxicities can prompt interventions that may prevent or mitigate future adverse events. During intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of PCa, daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are used to improve treatment accuracy through image guidance. This work investigated the performance of CBCT-based delta-radiomic features (DRF) models to predict acute and sub-acute International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5 GU toxicity grades for 50 PCa patients treated with definitive RT. Delta-radiomics models were built using logistic regression, random forest for feature selection, and a 1000 iteration bootstrapping leave one analysis for cross validation. To our knowledge, no prior studies of PCa have used DRF models based on daily CBCT images. AUC of 0.83 for IPSS and greater than 0.7 for CTCAE grades were achieved as early as week 1 of treatment. DRF extracted from CBCT images showed promise for the development of models predictive of RT outcomes. Future studies will include using artificial intelligence and machine learning to expand CBCT sample sizes available for radiomics analysis.


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Cone-beam CT delta-radiomics to predict genitourinary toxicities and international prostate symptom of prostate cancer patients: a pilot study

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